By this time, Pergamon was no more than a deteriorated ten-hectare city, a pale reflection of its former self. 0000020413 00000 n It was granted the title of metropolis and as a result of this an ambitious building programme was carried out: massive temples, a stadium, a theatre, a huge forum, and an amphitheatre were constructed. …from its main attraction, the altar of Zeus from Pergamon (Pergamum). During the Roman period the city was the first capital of the Asian province, but it eventually lost this status to local rival, Ephesus. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. Reconstruction of the Pergamon Altarby Raimond Spekking (CC BY-NC-SA). The atrium of early Christian architecture and the cloister were isolated areas for prayer. Violatti, C. (2015, June 14). 119 0 obj The Turkish government agreed that the ancient foundation of the Pergamon Altar ─Satan’s Throne─became the property of Germany. Ancient History Encyclopedia. 0000030887 00000 n 0000007695 00000 n The name of Pergamon continues to live on even today in the word “parchment”, which is a distortion of Pergamon (“parchment” is pergamino in Spanish and pergamena in Italian). endobj endstream 0000006346 00000 n Following years of unrest, the city became part of the territory controlled by Lysimachus, one of the Macedonian generals. This ArtHearty post chronicles the features and achievements of Hellenistic art. The Great Altar was constructed during the reign of Eumenes II (see above) and has a surface area of some 36 by 34 metres. 0000008359 00000 n 0000002329 00000 n Legendary Sites of the Ancient World: An Illustrated Guide to Over 80... Art of the Hellenistic Kingdoms: From Pergamon to Rome, The Thermohaline Finestructure of the Ocean: Pergamon Marine Series. Eumenes also established a centre of scholarship and research by creating a library second only to Alexandria’s in terms of the number of volumes and repute of its scholars. It also had a great collection of paintings for public enjoyment. It offers us a varied and wide array of figures that are certain to be from the same time period, eliminating the problem of dating that is often an issue for Greek art (due to Roman copies of earlier works). "Hellenistic" is a modern word and a 19th-century concept; the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in ancient Greece.Although words related in form or meaning, e.g. 0000008644 00000 n Under Attalus I Pergamon became the capital of the most powerful kingdom in Anatolia. The city had great strategic value, since it overlooked the Caicus River Valley (modern name Bakırçay) which provided access from Pergamon to the Aegean coast. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. ��炧�*�&�3���&EZ) ��H����@!�K��aF� ��no��\���VS���kڳ�i�B^�g�Lv2/ӎ�4|�� <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[81.0 617.094 251.328 629.106]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> �:ґ�N��Ѡ>]��\޺Ȁ�����'!G4�����Y(��^V?t��5j�>��F��.�7î{|&C6LJC����E�$W��u����TǏ��"O\a?f�� �R�O�}��Tco�U Many communities in Anatolia had suffered Galatian attacks who even managed to penetrate the city walls of Pergamon. 117 0 obj endobj Pergamon reached the height of its influence during the Hellenistic period, becoming the capital of the Attalid kings. The Greeks denounced Eumenes as a traitor for joining the Romans against his own fellow Greeks. Under Hadrian (117-138 CE), the city was favoured by several imperial initiatives. endobj Despite these changes, urban life did continue. Pergamon was now the capital of the most powerful kingdom in Anatolia. What Lysimachus could not foresee was that he would be killed in the battle. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. 114 0 obj Sculpted in high relief, the frieze depicts lively representations of Zeus, Artemis and other Olympian gods fighting the Giants, symbolic of the victory of order over chaos. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The Hellenistic Period witnessed the glory and power of the Greek Empire reaching its zenith. The Romans were not interested in ruling Anatolia themselves, so Eumenes II, who at this point had already become a friend and ally of the Romans, was now made the new ruler of the territory which had belonged to the Seleucids. Attalus drove the Galatians back and defeated them. 113 0 obj <>stream endobj The arrival of Christianity saw further change as the buildings which had honoured the pagan gods were no longer considered desirable. 121 0 obj The Thracian Gigante (Giant) Alcyoneus seized by the hair, frieze detail from the marble relief on the east side of the great altar of Zeus. When Alexander died in 323 BCE, his generals divided the territory he had conquered, which resulted in a power struggle between them. The altar was excavated and taken stone by stone to Berlin where it was reassembled in its own museum. 0000002878 00000 n …Athena Nicephorus; and the great altar of Zeus with its richly decorated frieze, a masterpiece of Hellenistic art. 0000001759 00000 n Pergamon is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. endobj Written by Cristian Violatti, published on 14 June 2015 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. <>stream <>/Border[0 0 0]/Rect[243.264 211.794 451.728 223.806]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj This is believed to be just ten percent of the total for the entire library. Pergamon. 0000002066 00000 n Ancient History Encyclopedia, 14 Jun 2015. H�tSKN�0��]��؎�8�i�)\�G@ ���B>��i+u��O^.����= ��8#`���c��� B����h. Ancient History Encyclopedia. <>stream Around this time, Pergamon was little more than a hilltop fortress with a settlement on its southern side. 0000000016 00000 n 115 0 obj The altar was constructed around a staircase and the 2.3 metres high and 120-metre long frieze is topped by a collonaded hall. 0000001617 00000 n 0000012179 00000 n endobj 0000002601 00000 n 03 Nov 2020. Last modified June 14, 2015. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Retrieved from 5.7 The Hellenistic Period, 323–31/30 bce 3. 120 0 obj For Philatauerus, this was not too bad: he was now holding 9,000 talents in a fortress which had no owner. This gigantic monument is a convincing and lasting testimony to the power and prestige that was enjoyed by this once great city. 0000031071 00000 n 112 0 obj Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 30 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium. As a result, the authorities of Pergamon encouraged the mass production of “parchment” (treated skins of sheep and calves), which had long been used for writing purposes in the East.

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