14. 54. Kolasari, Kalasi Panicker 58. Veluthedathu Nair (Veluthedan and Vannathan) 9. 4. rituals in Kalaries were known as Kuruppans, Unnikal, Panicker is also one those who gave training in weapons Malayan (In the areas comprising the Malabar District as specified by sub section (2) of section 5 of the State Re-organisation Act, 1956 (37 of 1956) 28. 7. The Brahmins treated almost all of those who acceded to their priestly status as Shudra, permitting only a small number to be recognised as Kshatriya, these being some of the local rulers[which?] 18. In Southern India only in Ke… of royal family. 37. 40. Kuruba 38. 36.

68.

66. Moopil Kudiya,Melakudi
Kurukkal, Adikal etc. Ulladan, Ullatan Kudumbi 35.

32. Gatti Vedan Kanisu or Kaniyar Panicker ,Kani or Kaniyan (Ganaka) or Kanisan or Kamnan

Arunthathiyar 10. Kurichchan (Kurichiyan) [14][15][16] Anand Amaladass says that "The Syrian Christians had inserted themselves within the Indian caste society for centuries and were regarded by the Hindus as a caste occupying a high place within their caste hierarchy. Ten Kurumban, Jenu Kurumban 7. [5], The entire Malabar region had strict pollution rules that were considered by the observers to be the most extreme in all of India. Depending both on local circumstances and on the changing modern socio-economic environment, castes are classified as Forward Classes (or General), Other Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes, and the Scheduled Tribes. [8] The lower castes were known as tintal jati, i.e. 50. 50. 7. 27.

Moopar or Kallan Mooppan or Kallan Mooppar.

2. The usual four-tier Hindu caste system, involving the varnas of Brahmin (priest), Kshatriya (warrior), Vaishya (business person, involved in trading, entrepreneurship and finance) and Shudra (service person), did not exist. Anglo Indian 12. Samagara 24. 17. [11], The Nambudiris had varying rules regarding the degrees of ritual pollution while interacting with people of different castes. Scheduled Castes Converted to Christianity 48. Malasar

22. This argues that the Jains needed protection when they arrived in the area and recruited a group of local sympathizers to provide it.

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Malai Pandaran 25. Panan Samuel Mateer, noted that even in the working fields the slaves were supervised from a distance. Karimpalan ( As amended by the Scheduled Castes and Sceduled Tribes Order (Amendment Act) 1976 and as amended by the Constitution (Sceduled castes) Orders (Second Amendment) Act, 2002 (Act 61 of 2002) vide Part VIII- Kerala- Schedule I notified in the Gazette of India, dated 18 December, 2002) and (As amended by the Scheduled Castes and Sceduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act 2002 (Act 10 of 2003) vide Part VII- Kerala- Second Schedule notified in the Gazette of India dated 8 January, 2003), 1.

Uraly 4.Reddiars. The Nair sect is by far the largest and most diverse of all FC sects in Kerala. Malayan, Nattu Malayan, Konga Malayan (Excluding the areas comprising the Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad and Kozhikode Districts)
31. Kartha [14][18] Rajendra Prasad, an Indian historian, said that the Syrian Christians took ritual baths after physical contact with lower castes and also the Nairs. 70. 46.

Marthandavarma. "[3], An alternative theory, also explained by Pullapilly, states that the system was introduced by Nambudiri Brahmins themselves.

Thampi is the title given to the children born to Travancore I Through out the State 42. Kadaiyan 57. The system was gradually reformed to some degree, with one of those reformers, Swami Vivekananda, having observed that it represented a "mad house" of castes. Maravans 42. Muslim or Mappila [8] Pollution by approaching a Muslim, Christian, or a Jew is not observed but their touch is considered polluting.

The Brahmins used their symbiotic relationship with the invading forces to assert their beliefs and position. 21.

39. Pallan Scheduled Castes Converted to Christianity

The Nambudiris had control of 64 villages and asserted that they had powers given to them by the gods, so much so that they considered even other Brahmin groups to be outside the caste hierarchy. supremacy is for Purathu Charnnavar. Maruthuvar 43. 14. The demise of orthodoxy, right beliefs, has not meant the demise of orthopraxy, right practice. "Indian Christians: Pollution and Origins.". Pambada Malapanickar 36. 12.

Naikkans 62. While the Indian caste system generally modelled the four-fold division of society into Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, in Kerala the Nambudiri Brahmins formed the priestly class and only rarely recognised anyone else as being other than Shudra or untouchables, the latter being outside the caste system entirely. Syrian Christians derive status within the caste system from the tradition that they were elites, who were evangelized by Thomas the Apostle. [9] Pollution rules were also observed in touching and sexual intercourse with the lower castes.

Nair warriors could kill a lower caste Pulayar on sight if they met with one of them on the highway. Kusavan(Kulala,Kulala Nair,Andhra Nair or Anthuru Nair) Velaans (Velaan, Velaar) Lower caste people could use only separate paths and their houses were in places where they could not be seen. Eravallan 65.

Anyone who was not a Nambudiri was treated by them as an untouchable. Koosa Although Brahmin influences had existed in the area since at least the 1st century CE, there was a large influx of these people from around the 8th century when they acted as priests, counsellors and ministers to invading Aryan princes. 3. The safeguards enshrined in the Constitution stipulate that governments should take special care to advance the educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, that untouchability is unacceptable and that all Dalit communities should have unrestricted entry in Hindu temples and other religious institutions.

Kerala Mudali Krishnanvaka 55. The roles left empty by the absence of these two ritual ranks were taken to some extent by a few Nairs, Muslims and by Syrian Christians, respectively.[24].

20. Vaduvans,Vadugans,Vadukkars and Vaduka (Vadukans) 21. 31.

Barendse explains this development: ... it turned to gross unrequited exploitation only in the nineteenth century when the British colonial pacification removed the threat of the peasant harvests being ravaged by armies or robbers and their huts being burned to the ground. Vakkaliga 2.Malayan [11], Based on the 1881 census an estimated 40,000 slaves converted to Islam from 1871 to 1881. Thachenadan, Thachenadan, Moopan Chetties (Kottar Chetties,Parakka Chetties,Elur Chetties,Attingal Chetties,Pudukkada Chetties,Iraniel Chetties, Sri Pandara Chetties, Telugu Chetties, Udiyankulangara Chetties, Peroorkada Chetties, Sadhu Chetties, 24 Mana Chetties, Wayanadan Chetties, Kalavara Chetties and 24 Mana Telugu Chetties) Kurumans (Mullu Kuruman, Mulla Kuruman, Mala Kuruman) Reneyar 41. 17. Thachar Koteyar Kerala Mudali 34. Mahendra-Medara 19. Adi Karnataka 33. Samban who were in high positions in Nair community in Cochin won Kattunayakan Palleyan, Palliyan, Paliyar, Palliya 8. 19. Chakkala 49. Kumbarans Yadavas (Kolaya, Ayar, Mayar, Maniyani and Iruman) 40. who co-operated with them. 32. 53. [citation needed]. 26.

The Thampis had the right to stand Purathu Charnnavar and Akathu 61. 11. the titles of Karthavu, Kaimal, Thamban etc. 48. 11. 13. Chamar,Muchi Kaimals The custom for removing pollution is a bath by complete immersion in water. conferred on those who performed remarkable deeds. Peruvannan (Varanavar) A Ezhava must remain twelve steps away from a Nair, and a Pulayan sixty-six steps off, and a Parayan some distance farther still ... Pulayans and Parayars, who are the lowest of all, can approach but not touch, much less may they eat with each other. Koraga Kuruba Bandari Writing in the context of violence against Dalits (untouchables) elsewhere in India, Frontline magazine said in 2006 that: Successive governments have brought in legislation and programmes to protect the rights of Dalit communities. Pandithars Kaikolan

24. Saliya, Chaliya (Chaliyan)

Odans 47. In the colonial period, many lower castes were converted to Christians by the European Missionaries but the new converts were not allowed to join the Syrian Christian community and they continued to be considered as untouchables even by the Syrian Christians. 30. 51. 41.

Caste remains endogamous. S.I.U.C [4] Robin Jeffrey, who is a professor specialising in the modern history and politics of India, quotes the wife of a Christian missionary, who wrote in 1860 that: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, ... a Nair can approach but not touch a Namboodiri Brahmin: a Ezhava [Thiyya] must remain thirty-six paces off, and a Pulayan slave ninety-six steps distant. Bharathar (Other than Parathar),Paravan Cholanaickan

33. Kuruvan, Sidhanar, Kuravar, Kuruva, Sidhana

47. Their dominating influence was to be found in all matters: religion, politics, society, economics and culture.


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